Sonochemical degradation at 278 kHz of Naphthol Blue Black (NBB, a diazo dye widely used in the textile and soap industries) has been investigated. The effects of different parameters and the influence of mineral matrix (bicarbonates ions and phosphates ions) on its sonodegradation have been evaluated. The influence of parameters linked to the pollutant (concentration: 0.50 to 97.32 µmol.L-1), to the technique (power: 20 to 100 W) and to the natural medium (pH: 3 to 10.8; bicarbonate ions; phosphate ions) have been studied. The decolourisation rate of NBB increases when substrate concentration or ultrasound power increases. Bicarbonate ions at natural medium concentration (2.97 mmol.L-1) have a positive influence for low pollutant concentration (0.5 - 2.0 µmol.L-1), due to carbonate radicals. Phosphate ions may also improve the kinetics, but this effect depends on the pH domains. Furthermore, acid pH (pH = 3) has a positive effect for high pollutant concentration whereas basic pH (pH = 10.8) has a positive influence at low pollutant concentration.