The objective of this study was to describe the spatial risk-patterns of prematurity and low birth weight in Spain. A descriptive spatial analysis of births registered in the Spanish Vital Statistics during 2004–2008 using municipalities as the observation unit was carried out. Besag-York-Mollié autoregressive spatial models were adjusted using the Integrated Nested Laplace approximation to calculate relative risks and posterior probabilities of having very and moderate preterm or low weight newborns. Results were represented in maps to assess geographic risk-patterns. Spatial analysis shows geographical variations in the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes in Spain highlighting three main high-risk zones, namely, municipalities in Asturias, Madrid City and Murcia. The specific risk patterns identified on each zone suggests some differences regarding the potential underlying risk factors and specific areas for future research. A differential exposure during pregnancy to some risks potentially related to industry or agriculture and other contextual factors could underlie an unequal vulnerability to adverse reproductive outcomes in some Spanish regions.