A horizontal flow multimedia stormwater filter was developed and tested for hydraulic efficiency and pollutant removal efficiency. Suitability of different natural fibres such as jute, sisal, hemp, coir, oil palm etc. was studied as filter media. Furthermore, the efficacy of different fabric filter screens made up of both woven and non-woven textiles was also assessed.
A new terminology, Universal Performance Index was introduced. Analysis of these indices showed that jute medium, nonwoven sisal screen and media proportion 1:1:1 performed better. All of the filter combinations exhibited 100 % sediment removal at lower sediment concentration in the inflow. Percentage of discarded flow versus reference flow for the stormwater filter combinations showed that the device performed better at lower flow rates. It was also observed that the hydraulic efficiency was directly proportional to the slope and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the filter. Hydraulic efficiency showed a diminishing trend as the sediment level in inflow increases.
By using matrix ranking method, the gravel-coir fibre-sand filter in 1:1:1 proportion with woven sisal-hemp screens was selected as the best filter combination. The field evaluation of the filter showed 97.24 % efficiency in normalizing pH and 13.27 % efficiency in reducing electrical conductivity. The removal percentages of Magnesium and Sodium were 32 % and 34 % respectively. But higher removal efficiencies above 70 % were recorded for Total Solids, Nitrates and Sulfates.