Adsorption and desorption of uranium(VI) from dilute aqueous solutions by Eucalyptus citriodora distillation sludge was studied in a batch mode. The potential of Eucalyptus citriodora distillation sludge to remove uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions has been investigated at different conditions of solution pH, metal ion concentrations, biosorbent dosage, biosorbent particle size, contact time and temperature. The results indicated that biosorption capacity of Eucalyptus citriodora distillation sludge was strongly affected by the medium pH, the biosorbent dose, metal ion concentrations and medium temperature. Reduction in particle size increased the biosorption capacity. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to biosorption data to determine the biosorption characteristics. An optimum biosorption capacity (57.75 mg/g) was achieved with pH 4.0, particle size 0.255 mm, biosorbent dose 0.5 g/100 mL and initial uranium(VI) concentration of 100 mg/L. Uranium(VI) removal by Eucalyptus citriodora distillation sludge was rapid, the equilibrium was established within 60 min and pseudo-second-order model was found to fit with the experimental data. The biosorption process decreased with an increase in the temperature indicating its exothermic nature. Pretreatments of biomass with different reagents affected its biosorption capacity. A significant increase (34 %) in biosorption capacity (83.25 mg/g) was observed with benzene treatment. Fourier-transform infra-red studies showed the involvement of carbonyl, carboxyl and amide groups in the biosorption process. The results indicated that sulfuric acid had the best effects as an eluent showing 93.24 % desorption capacity.