Wastewater containing high concentrations of salt, are difficult to treat using biological treatment processes, especially anaerobic processes. Limited information is available on methanogenic activity in saline environments. The objective of this research was to investigate the activity of halophilic methanogens, digester sludge and a mixed culture of halophilic and methanogenic bacteria, at various levels of salinity, in terms of lag period and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) at two temperatures. For the halophilic bacteria at 35 oC, the initial SMA ranged from 0.46 to 0.90 g acetate/g VSS.d, but decreased at higher salt concentrations. The maximum SMA varied from 1.2 to 2.08 g acetate/g VSS.d. High sodium chloride concentrations had a significant adverse effect on digester sludge. At 25 oC, at salt concentrations of 30 g/l and above, the digester sludge could not acclimate even in 50 days. Little difference was observed in the maximum SMA of mixed culture and halophilic bacteria at high salt concentrations of 40 ï¿½50 g/l.
Guerrero, L.; Omil, F.; Mendez, R.;Lema, J. M., (1997). Treatment of saline wastewaters from fish meal factories in an anaerobic filter under extreme ammonia concentrations. Bioresource Tech., 61 (1), 69-78 (10 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(97)84701-3. Abstract | Full Text (1112 K)
Hovious, J. C., (1973). Identification and control of petrochemical pollutants inhibitory to anaerobic processes. Environmental protection technology series, EPA-R2-73-194, USEPA, Cincinnati, Ohio . Full Text
Hulshoff-Pol, L. W.; Van de Worp, J. J. M.; Lettinga, G.; Beverloo, W. A., (1986). Physical characterization of anaerobic granular sludge. In: Anaerobic Treatment. A Grown-up Technology. Aquatech, Amsterdam, , 89-101 (13 Pages)
Krongthamchat, K.; Riffat, R., (2001). Organic biodegradation in saline wastewater using halophile-supplemented methanogenic cultures. Proc. 9th. World Congress Anaerobic Digestion: Anaerobic Conversion for Sustainability, Part 2, Antwerpen, Belgium.
Kugelman, I. J.; Mc Carty, P. L., (1965). Cation toxicity and stimulation in anaerobic waste treatment. J. Wat. Pollut. Control Fed., 37, 97-116 (20 Pages)
Metcalf .; Eddy., (2003). Wastewater engineering:treatment, Disposal and reuse. 4th.Ed.. McGraw Hill Inc., New York, USA., Abstract
Nyholm, N.; Lindgaard-Jorgensen, P. ; Hansen, N., (1984). Biodegradation of 4-nitrophenol in standardised aquatic degradation tests.. Ecotoxicol.Environ. Saf., 8, 454. 8 (5), 451-70 (-380 Pages)Abstract
Parkin, G. F.; Speece, R. E.; Yang, C. H. J. ; Kocher, M. W., (1983). Response of methane fermentation systems to industrial toxicants. J. Water Pollut.Control Fed., 55 (1) Abstract
Soto, M.; Mendez, R.; Lema, J. M., (1993). Sodium inhibition and sulphate reduction in the anaerobic treatment of mussel processing wastewaters. J.Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 58 (1), 1-7 (7 Pages)Abstract
Speece, R. E., (1996). Anaerobic biotechnology for industrial wastewaters. Archae Press., Nashville, Abstract
Zhilina, T. N., (1986). Methanogenic bacteria from hypersaline environments. Sys. Appl. Microbiol., 7, Abstract