The effect of the injection of pure oxygen instead of air in a membrane bioreactor for the elimination of bisphenol A is investigated. A dynamic experiment was developed in a pilot plant where the aerobic reactor was continuously spiked with 1 mg L−1 of bisphenol A. Air was injected for 10 days and then pure oxygen was injected for another 10 days. The bisphenol A concentration was determined in aqueous phases and activated sludge using simple and sensitive analytical methods based on different extraction procedures and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Enzymatic activity was also determined and toxicity tests were performed to discard that the spiked bisphenol A concentration could negatively affect the microorganisms in the bioreactor and, thus, the membrane bioreactor performance. The effluent bisphenol A concentration increased up to 0.26 mg L−1 after 4 days in the air injection treatment, and up to 0.48 mg L−1 after only 12 h in the oxygen injection treatment. In both cases, this was followed by a decrease in concentration despite the continuous spiking of bisphenol A into the bioreactor. In presence of pure oxygen, bisphenol A concentration reached background levels (below the limit of quantification) after 5 days. In contrast, when using air a total of 10 days were required to reach background levels. The injection of pure oxygen instead of air is an important innovation in wastewater treatment, allowing permanent elimination of organic contaminants, avoiding their return to the environment and ensuring the safety of water.