Application and development of municipal solid waste treatment technology depends on various socio-economic and environmental factors. All those factors are work as development drivers for waste management systems. The study aims to identify key drivers from case studies of waste management development trend in Sweden. Social, economic and environmental drivers are identified and presented in this study. The study identifies personal behaviour, local waste management practice, consumption and generation of waste as the key social drivers. Resource value of waste, economic benefit from waste treatment facilities and landfill tax have been acknowledged as economic drivers for developing waste treatment technology. Moreover, global climate change, environmental movement and awareness have been working as environmental drivers for developing various waste treatment methods in Sweden. In addition, the study aims to analyse emerging waste treatment technologies based on a number of literature review and questionnaire survey. Dry composting, pyrolysis-gasification, plasma arc, and anaerobic digestion have been identified as potential emerging technologies for waste management systems in Sweden.