The adsorption behavior of four anionic dyes and one disperse dye in single solution and binary solutions on fly ash was investigated in order to elucidate the effect of competitive adsorption on the kinetics. The experimental findings showed that adsorption equilibriums of four anionic dyes were reached within 50 min either in the single solution or in binary mixtures. Competitive adsorption increased the time of attaining equilibrium of disperse dye. Desorption of dyes suggested the predominant adsorption mechanisms, that is, chemisorption for anionic dyes and physisorption for disperse dye. For the binary mixtures, the anionic dyes could be adsorbed preferentially on fly ash at the first stage. Second-order kinetic models fitted better to the equilibrium data of all dyes in the single solution as well as in the binary mixtures. The maximum rate constant of intraparticle diffusion and the minimum external mass transfer coefficient was found for disperse dye both in single and in binary solutions. The intraparticle diffusion constants and external mass transfer coefficients of the four anionic dyes in binary solution are similar to those obtained in single solution. The Biot number confirmed that the intraparticle diffusion was the rate-limiting step in the dye sorption process.