The impact of petroleum hydrocarbons on the floor of a mangrove system located on one of the intertidal lands behind the barrier islands of Niger Delta basin of southern Nigeria was evaluated following the Obiafu-14 oil spillage. The area covered by the oil spill was delimited by reconnaissance and soils were sampled by grid method from the bottom and middle slopes of oil-affected and unaffected (control) sites. Soil samples were later brought to the laboratory where total hydrocarbon content was determined by extraction and spectrophotometric techniques. A lower pH range of 4.28-4.36 in the oil impacted soils meant that the site was more acidic; a higher moisture content of 33.34% and lower electrical conductivity (EC) of 31.75?S/cm in the affected area presupposed oxygen deprivation and lower salt content respectively. On the strength of the baseline data on the study area and evidence from the uncontaminated, geographically similar control site, it can be said that the Obiafu-14 oil spillage had severely contaminated the affected mangrove floor. This is corroborated by a total extractable hydrocarbon content of 6.32x103 ï¿½ 344 mg/kg (no overlap in Standard Error at 95% Confidence Limit), and the abysmal degradation of the mangrove system at the site. Although soils of the mangrove floor under consideration may well be of limited cultivation value on account of the peopleï¿½s dual occupation in fishing and farming, the presence of such levels of petroleum hydrocarbons at the study site might hamper agricultural productivity.
Amadi, A.; Dickson, A.; Maate, G. O., (1993). Remediation of oil polluted soils: Effect of organic and inorganic nutrient supplements on the performance of maize (Zea may L.). Water air soil pollut., 66 (1-2), 59-76 (18 Pages), DOI: 10.1007/BF00477060. Abstract | Full Text (829 K)
Atlas, R. M., (1981). Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons:
an environmental perspective. Microbial Rev., 45 (1), 180-209 (30 Pages)Abstract | Full Text (5500 K)
Baker, J. M., (1976). Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., Essex England, , 483-536 (54 Pages)Abstract
Duffus, J. H., (1980). Environmental Toxicology. Edward Arnold Publishers Limited, London. , 21-103 (83 Pages)
Ezebuiro, P. E., (2004). A review of effect of oil pollution in West Affrican environment. J. Dis. environ., 1 (3), 62-68 (7 Pages)
Gelder-Ottway, S. V.; Knight, M., (1976). A review of world oil spillages 1960-1975. In: Baker, J. M., (Ed.), Marine Ecology and Oil Pollution. Applied Science Publishers, Essex, England. , 483-520 (38 Pages)
Manahan, S. E., (1994). Environmental chemistry. CRC Press, Inc. Florida.
NDES, (1999). The Niger delta environmental survey phase 1 report, Environmental and socio economic characteristics. Technical report submitted by Environmental Resource Managers Ltd., Lagos, 1, 22-34 (13 Pages)
Odokuma, L. O.; Okpokwasili, G. C., (1993). Seasonal ecology of hydrocarbon utilizing microbes in the surface waters of a river. Environ. Monit. Assess., 27 (3), 175-191 (17 Pages), DOI: 10.1007/BF00548364. Abstract | Full Text (984 K)
Odu, C. T. I.; Nwoboshi, L. C.; Esuroso, O. F., (1985). Environmental studies soils and vegetation of the Nigerian Agip Oil Company operation areas. In Proceedings of an International Seminar on the Petroleum Industry and the Nigerian Environment. NNPC, Lagos, Nigeria, , 274-283 (10 Pages)
Odum, E. P., (1971). Fundamentals of ecology. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia. Abstract
Osuji, L. C.; Adesiyan, S. O.; Obute, G. C., (2004). Post impact assessment of oil pollution in Agbada west plain of Niger Delta, Nigeria: Field reconnaissance and total extractable hydrocarbon content. Chem. Biodivers., 1 (10), 1569-1577 (9 Pages), DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.200490117. Abstract | Full Text (277 K)
Volkman, J. K.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R. I.; Rowland, S. J.; Sheppard, P. N., (1984). Biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils from the Barrow Sub-basin of Western Australia. Org. Geochem., 6, 619-632 (14 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/0146-6380(84)90084-6. Abstract | Full Text (1238 K)
Williams, J. A.; Bjorov, M.; Dolcater, D. L.; Winters, J. C., (1986). Biodegradation in South Texas Eocene oils effects on aromatics and biomarkers. Org. Geochem., 10 (1-3), 451-461 (11 Pages), DOI: 10.1016/0146-6380(86)90045-8. Abstract | Full Text (869 K)