The purpose of this study was to assess selected potentially toxic elements and persistent organic pollutants concentrations in the Shahid Rajaei Dam reservoir as well as their accumulation in barbel and Leuciscus cephalus fish species. The concentration of arsenic, mercury, nickel, chromium and cadmium in all water samples is less than WHO drinking water standard. Chromium shows a higher concentration than WHO standard in both fish species, while nickel and mercury content in barbel fish is higher than WHO standard. The result of principle component analyses indicates an increased elemental concentration due to application of phosphorus fertilizers in the agricultural lands, especially paddy field, ending up to the Tajan River and Shahid Rajaei Dam reservoir. Ni, Co, Mn, Pb and Cr display a quasi-independent behavior within the groups (PC1, PC2 and PC3) reflecting contribution of both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in all water samples, except M-5 sample, are less than WHO and EPA drinking water standards, while persistent organic pollutants (detected in both fish species) indicate higher contents than those of EPA standard values. Based on carcinogenic health risk value, maximum allowable fish consumption for arsenic is two meals per month. The result of noncarcinogenic health risk of mercury indicates one and three meals consumption per month for barbel and L. cephalus fishes, respectively. The calculation of maximum allowable fish consumption based on carcinogenic health for dieldrin, ∑HCH, heptachlor epoxide, ∑DDT and ∑PCBs reveals monthly meals limitation of both fish species grown in Shahid Rajaei Dam.