1,8-Dihydroxy anthraquinone is the intermediate usually used in the dye and pharmaceutical industry, and its direct discharge into water results in serious pollution. In the present study, we aimed to remove 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone and investigate its biosorption mechanism of anthraquinone onto nonviable Aspergillus oryzae CGMCC5992 biomass. Biosorption data were intuitively described by Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. According to the Langmuir model, it deduced that the maximum biosorption capacity of 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone was 62.82 mg g−1 at 30 °C and pH 3.0. Characterization of the interaction between biosorbent and possible dye-biosorbent was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental results suggested that A. oryzae biomass as low-cost, environmentally friendly and efficient biosorbent could be successfully employed in the removal of 1,8-dihydroxy anthraquinone from aqueous solution.