We briefly reviewed the existing research on the ecotoxicity of nanowires and suggested directions for further study. Nanowires are technological innovations that can benefit humans. However, it is important to consider the effects of nanowires on the environment. Only a few studies have reported acute and chronic ecological toxicity of nanowires on aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and limited research papers have reported antibacterial effects of nanowires. It is assumed that nanowires have a toxic mechanism similar to that of nanoparticles or ions, but the mechanism remains unknown because so little research has been conducted on the ecological toxicity of nanowires. More in-depth assessments of the chronic toxicity, bioavailability, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity of nanowires on various species are needed.